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Most Recent Articles For: nursing priorities

Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 25th, 2012
I. Purpose a. Definitive treatment for advanced, irreversibly damaged joints with loss of function and unremitting pain b. Commom conditions: degenerative and rheumatoid arthritis (RA); selected fractures, such as with hip and femoral neck; joint instability; congenital hip disorders; avascular necrosis II. Procedures a. Performed on any joint except the spine, with hip and knee replacements the most ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 25th, 2012
I. Pathophysiology—Partial or complete detachment of body part with residual extremity covered with well-vascularized muscle and skin, although reattachment surgery may be possible for fingers, hands, and arms a. Primarily two types of amputations i. Open or provisional: requires subsequent revisions ii. Closed or flap: all surgical revision is performed and the wound closed in one procedure b. ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 25th, 2012
I. Pathophysiology a. Discontinuity or break in a bone b. May be associated with serious injury to nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and/or organs c. More than 150 fracture classifications with five major types: incomplete, complete, closed, open, and pathologic II. Etiology a. Common causes: trauma, including abuse; overuse injury; osteoporosis; bone tumors; infections b. Severity of fracture increases with ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 25th, 2012
I. Purpose a. Removal of breast tissue due to presence of malignant or cancerous tumor changes b. Surgical procedures: dependent on tumor type, size, and location as well as clinical characteristics or staging i. Breast-conserving therapy ii. Lumpectomy iii. Partial or segmental mastectomy iv. Lymph node surgery v. Mastectomy (Mayo Clinic, 2007) 1. Simple or total 2. Modified radical 3. Radical 4. Skin-sparing ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 25th, 2012
I. Indications—surgical removal of the uterus a. Malignancies: 11% of hysterectomies b. Nonmalignant conditions, such as endometriosis, fibroid tumors; pelvic relaxation with uterine prolapse that leads to disabling levels of pain, discomfort, uterine bleeding, emotional stress c. Life-threatening bleeding or hemorrhaging, such as obstetric or traumatic complication; irreparable rupture of the uterus d. Treatment of intractable pelvic infection II. Procedures a. ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 3rd, 2012
I. Pathophysiology a. Irreversible process in which the retinal ganglion cells—nerve cells in front of the optic nerve—die b. Death of retinal cells and degeneration or atrophy of the optic nerve fibers initially causes loss of peripheral vision, eventually leading to blindness if untreated. II. Classification a. Chronic open-angle glaucoma, also called primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)—most common type i. ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 3rd, 2012
(PRIMARY CARBONIC ACID DEFICIT) I. Pathophysiology—acute or chronic increase in respiratory rate and volume, primarily triggered by hypoxemia or direct stimulation of the central respiratory center of the brain a. Acute: PaCO2 is below lower limit of normal, serum pH is alkalemic due to loss of potassium, and phosphate secondary to cellular uptake. b. Chronic: PaCO2 is ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 3rd, 2012
RESPIRATORY ACID-BASE IMBALANCES I. Pathophysiology—the body has the remarkable ability to maintain plasma pH within a narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45. a. Accomplished by chemical buffering mechanisms involving the lungs and kidneys i. Lungs compensate for acid-base imbalances resulting from altered levels of metabolic acids. ii. Kidneys compensate for acid-base imbalances resulting from altered levels of carbonic ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
I. Pathophysiology a. Bacterial infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (TB) i. Primarily affects the lungs (70% per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2004) although it can invade other body systems ii. Airborne droplets are inhaled, with the droplet nuclei deposited within the alveoli of the lung. b. Primary infection followed by a latent or dormant phase, ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
(MECHANICAL) I. Pathophysiology—impairment of respiratory function affecting O2 uptake and CO2 elimination, requiring mechanical assist to support or replace spontaneous breathing a. Inability to maintain adequate oxygenation (hypoxemia) b. Inability to maintain adequate ventilation due to apnea or alveolar hypoventilation causing a rise in PaCO2 and a fall in serum pH (respiratory acidosis) c. Inability to continue the ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
LARYNGECTOMY (POSTOPERATIVE CARE) I. Pathophysiology a. Malignancy lies above the clavicle, for instance lip, mouth, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, but excludes the brain, spinal cord, axial skeleton, and vertebrae. b. Cancers limited to the vocal cords (intrinsic) tend to spread slowly, whereas cancers involving the epiglottis (extrinsic) are more likely to metastasize to lymph nodes of neck. c. ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
I. Pathophysiology a. Partial or complete collapse of lung due to accumulation of air (pneumothorax), blood (hemothorax), or other fluid (pleural effusion) in the pleural space b. Intrathoracic pressure changes induced by increased pleural space volumes and reduced lung capacity, causing respiratory distress and gas exchange problems and producing tension on mediastinal structures that can impede cardiac ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
Postoperative care I. Pathophysiology a. Usually develops within the wall or epithelium of the bronchial tree b. Prolonged exposure to cancer-promoting agents causes damage to ciliated cells and mucus-producing cells, leading to genetic mutations and development of dysplastic cells. II. Classification (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 2008; National Cancer Institute, 2008) a. Small cell lung cancers (SCLCs), or oat cell ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
I. Pathophysiology a. Inflammation of the lung parenchyma associated with alveolar edema and congestion that impairs gas exchange b. Common pathogens i. Viruses 1. Common causative organisms include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza 2. Accounts for approximately half of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ii. Bacteria 1. Divided into typical and atypical types 2. Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus, and Staphylococcus ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) AND ASTHMA I. Pathophysiology a. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): chronic obstructive bronchitis and emphysema i. Chronic airflow limitations (CAL): caused by a mixture of small airway disease (obstructive bonchiolitis) and parenchymal destruction (emphysema) ii. Airway inflammation: causes structural changes, narrowing of lumina, and loss of elastic recoil in parenchyma b. Asthma (also called chronic ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (INCLUDING PULMONARY EMBOLI CONSIDERATIONS) I. Pathophysiology: Related to three factors known as the Virchow triad—stasis of blood flow, vessel wall injury, and alterations in the clotting mechanism. a. Mechanical (e.g., trauma, surgery) or physiological (e.g., hypertension, phlebitis) damage to the vessel wall leads to platelet activation, with platelets adhering to one another and clumping ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
POSTOPERATIVE CARE— CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT (CABG), MINIMALLY INVASIVE DIRECT CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS (MIDCAB), CARDIOMYOPLASTY, VALVE REPLACEMENT I. Purpose: to maximize cardiac output by improving blood flow and myocardial muscle function II. Types a. Reparative: closure of atrial or ventricular septal defect or repair of stenotic mitral valve; reparative surgeries more likely to produce cure or prolonged ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on April 2nd, 2012
I. Pathophysiology a. Abnormal formation or conduction of the electrical impulses within the heart i. Bradyarrhythmias: decreased intrinsic pacemaker function or block in conduction, often at atrioventricular (AV) junction or His-Purkinje system ii. Tachyarrhythmias: caused by reentry, often due to enhanced or abnormal automaticity b. Causes abnormalities of the heart rate, rhythm, or both c. Change in conduction may ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on March 23rd, 2012
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION I. Pathophysiology a. Marked reduction or loss of blood flow through one or more of the coronary arteries, resulting in cardiac muscle ischemia, and over a finite period, resulting in necrosis b. Occurs most often due to coronary artery disease (CAD) c. Cellular ischemia and necrosis can affect the heart’s rhythm, pumping action, and blood ...
Written by ncp nursing care plan on March 23rd, 2012
ANGINA (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE, ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME) I. Pathophysiology a. The disorder is characterized by a narrowing of coronary arteries due to atherosclerosis, spasm or, rarely, embolism. b. Atherosclerotic changes in coronary arteries results in damage to the inner layers of the coronary arteries with stiffening of vessels and diminished dilatory response. c. Accumulation of fatty deposits and ...

Source Credits: Nursing Care Planning Guides: For Adults in Acute, Extended and Home Care Settings by S. P. Ulrich and S. W. Canale BSN MSN / Nursing Care Plans by M. Doenges MF Moorehouse Alice Murr