I. Indications—For the treatment of symptomatic gallstones,
infection of the gallbladder or biliary ducts, calcified gallbladder,
or cancer or trauma
a. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: for removal of gallstones;
performed using video endoscopy, with instruments inserted
through small abdominal incisions
b. Open cholecystectomy: for multiple or large gallstones,
common bile duct stones, history of previous surgeries with
scarring, or unsuccessful laparoscopic cholecystectomy
III. Statistics (Heuman et al, 2006)
a. Morbidity: On an annual basis, approximately 500,000
Americans develop symptoms or complications of
gallstones, requiring cholecystectomy.
b. Mortality: Several hundred deaths (annually) are attributed
to complications of cholecystectomy.
This procedure is usually done on a short-stay basis; however,
in the presence of suspected complications such as empyema,
gangrene, or perforation, an inpatient stay on a surgical unit is
Cholecystitis with cholelithiasis
Psychosocial aspects of care
1. Promote respiratory function.
2. Prevent complications.
3. Provide information about disease, procedure(s), prognosis,
1. Ventilation and oxygenation adequate for individual needs.
2. Complications prevented or minimized.
3. Disease process, surgical procedure, prognosis, and therapeutic
4. Plan in place to meet needs after discharge.
and treatment needs.